[China Agricultural Machinery Industry News] As the staple food, people's daily life is inseparable from a variety of wheat products such as bread, noodles, cakes, taro, biscuits and so on. However, different wheat products have different quality requirements for wheat. Wheat has great potential.
How should Mai respond to market demand?
"Currently, China's wheat production is no longer only heavy production, but shifts in both production and quality." Professor Wei Yimin, a scientist at the National Wheat Industry Technology System and a researcher at the Agricultural Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, who has been engaged in wheat processing research for a long time, told reporters. With the changes in the wheat industry situation, how to scientifically produce and process wheat according to market needs, promote the integration of the first, second and third generations, and improve the overall competitiveness of China's wheat industry is urgently needed.
Different quality uses, large demand in the wheat market
As a staple food, people's daily lives are inseparable from a wide variety of wheat products such as bread, noodles, cakes, taro, and biscuits. However, different wheat products have different quality requirements for wheat.
"Depending on the grain, protein content, wet gluten content, dough stability time and other indicators, wheat can be divided into three types: strong gluten, medium gluten and weak gluten. Different types, suitable foods are also processed." According to Wei Yimin Strong gluten wheat gluten strength, long dough stability, suitable for bread and noodles; medium gluten wheat gluten strength moderate, good ductility, suitable for making noodles and steamed bread; weak gluten wheat protein content, dough stability time is short, it is suitable for Crisp food such as biscuits and cakes.
Liu Jianjun, a researcher at the Crop Research Institute of the Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, has been studying domestic wheat varieties. He said: "At present, the common wheat grown in China is mostly used to make noodles. The quality is basically not a problem, but there is still a lack of high-quality wheat. At the same time, due to historical reasons, the development of strong gluten wheat and weak gluten wheat is relatively slow. At present, this part of the wheat market has a large gap and even needs to be imported."
The data shows that China's wheat production has exceeded 130 million tons per year in the past five years, breaking through 130 million tons in 2015, making it a veritable world wheat producer. At the same time, due to factors such as international trade, price differences, and shortage of domestic special wheat, a certain amount of special wheat is imported every year for five years. For example, the domestic large Wudeli Flour Group Co., Ltd. has a large domestic single production line. The daily wheat use is about 40,000 tons, and the processing wheat often needs to be imported.
â€œIn the context of 12 years of continuous harvest, China's wheat production still has serious problems of 'variety, quality and brand' that cannot meet the needs of processing industry and consumers, and these are the main factors affecting the competitiveness of domestic wheat market. The problem.â€ Wei Yimin admits that adjusting and guiding farmers to grow wheat is the only way for the structural reform of the supply side of the wheat industry. The development potential of wheat is very large.
The planting area should be scientifically laid out, and the scale production depends on the integration technology.
Compared with the general wheat varieties, the special wheat yield is high, the quality is excellent, and there are special processing uses. Therefore, in terms of planting technology, the natural requirements are also higher.
Zhang Xiaowen, a farmer from Xiaoying Village, Guanlan Town, Liangshan County, Shandong Province, is an old-fashioned species. Three years ago, he began to grow wheat, and joined the Liangshan County Wanzhong Planting Professional Cooperative, applying advanced green integration technology to rule the pests and diseases. He told reporters that he had only about 400 kilograms of ordinary wheat per mu, and the benefits were average. Now he has planted wheat, and he has integrated technology to â€œescortâ€, and at the purchase price, wheat is at least at least per kilogram of ordinary wheat. It is 1 cent higher. â€œThe variety is good, the technology is advanced, the purchase price is high, and the benefits of our farmers are naturally good.â€ Zhang Xiaowen said with emotion.
â€œThere is a requirement for planting wheat on the plot. If the soil is not good, it will affect the yield and quality of the wheat.â€ As the chairman of the Wanxiang Planting Professional Cooperative, Lv Jianhua began to transfer land and purchase wheat in 2010. The company provides wheat special powder. Today, the cooperative planted wheat area reached 80,000 mu, and the per mu yield was stable at around 500 kg, which was completely unsalable. "Sand-growing wheat, the quality is not good, at least 200 kg per mu than the silt. Therefore, we need to carry out a scientific layout in planting." Lu Jianhua told reporters that this year, he intends to transfer some more suitable for growing wheat. The land further expands the local planting area of â€‹â€‹wheat in Liangshan.
Coincidentally, as a new wheat producing area in Henan Province, Henan Xinxiang has also planted large quantities of wheat in recent years. Wufeng Grain Cooperative of Huixian Town, Xinxiang City signed a 30,000-mu wheat purchase contract with neighboring farmers. According to Sun Shaochen, the chairman of the board of directors, local agricultural experts provide integrated technology for wheat production, such as fine land preparation, standardized sowing, water saving (measured by sorghum), soil testing and fertilization, and nitrogen fertilizer post-shift, according to the nutritional needs of strong gluten wheat. . This year, the wheat recycling price is expected to be higher than the market price of 0.4 yuan / kg, this alone will increase the income of farmers to 1.28 million.
"Now, the cost of wheat production is constantly increasing. To improve the competitiveness of wheat, technology must be integrated with green, good varieties and good methods; production must be improved, and quality must be guaranteed. Only in this way can we improve the planting efficiency of wheat." Liu Jianjun Said with emotion.
Science and technology support the development of the entire industrial chain, and the integration of the first, second and third productions will realize the value
The benefits of large-scale planting of wheat are high, and it is necessary to rely on the processing industry to increase its added value. Lv Jianhuaâ€™s cooperative began to produce orders as early as 2010. The annual production of 40,000 tons of wheat can be sold out almost immediately. From this year on, Lv Jianhua intends to try one or two production integration, integrate resources, and build a small special powder processing plant. "In this way, from planting to warehousing to sales processing, I will realize the development of the whole industry chain, and realize the greater value of wheat and achieve a win-win situation for growers and cooperatives." Lv Jianhua is full of confidence in the future.
"We also hope to participate in the planting of wheat and ensure the quality of wheat from the source." Hebei Jinsha River Noodle Co., Ltd. is a well-known noodle processing enterprise in China. In recent years, it has cooperated with the processing institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to build 20 The production line of the remaining noodles has all realized automatic production. Wei Haijing, deputy general manager, told reporters that as a flour processing enterprise, they need to acquire wheat. However, because there are not many large-scale wheat cultivation, they can only search around, and if they can participate in the planting process, the industrial chain can be extended to meet the processing. Needed.
"China's current wheat varieties are quite numerous, but there are relatively few large-scale cultivations, and there are few special powders suitable for processing. There are problems of 'strong gluten is not strong, weak gluten is not weak'. Therefore, in terms of quality There is still a lot of room for improvement.â€ Liu Jianjun believes that although it is technically a problem to make delicious world bread with Chinese wheat, the direction of Chinese flour processing should be partially specialized and must be based on the consumption habits of Chinese people. And need to form scale planting, stabilize medium-gluten wheat, enhance strong gluten and weak gluten wheat. In addition to the supply of wheat products, not only the quantity is sufficient, but also the variety, quality, safety, nutrition and convenience are required to meet the needs of consumers.
In fact, from whole wheat flour, wheat germ products, to feed, industrial products, in addition to food, wheat can be processed in a wide variety of categories. For the future industrial development, Wei Yimin suggested to implement scientific and technological support from the entire industrial chain. He explained: "In production, we must use good techniques and good supporting technologies; in the storage and transportation links, we should use raw grain classification and storage and transportation technology; , we should produce high value-added products that meet market demand; in addition, we must promote comprehensive utilization technology, develop and utilize wheat resources as much as possible, tap the full value of wheat, and let Chinese people eat better quality wheat products. ""
What is wheat?
Wheat refers to wheat with good quality and special processing purposes, and has been scaled and regionally planted, with pure seed quality and stable quality. It has reached the national wheat variety quality standard and can be processed into wheat with special quality food. There must be three basic characteristics: dedicated, stable.
That is, the quality is excellent. At present, the main indicators for wheat quality evaluation accepted by people in various industries are the bulk density of wheat, the content and quality of wet gluten (the storage enterprises use grain protein, wet gluten content and stabilization time as the three essential indicators).
Dedicated means that it has a special purpose. Such as bread-type wheat, biscuit-type wheat, noodle-type wheat and special dumpling powder, and pull flour.
Stable is stable quality. Wheat requires large-scale production (such as centralized contiguous, single-receiving and single-storage) to prevent mixing, and requires regional planting, because only the ecological environment can adapt to maintain the purity of seed, quality and stability.
In 2013, the state promulgated the GB/T17320-2013 standard, which stipulated the classification of the quality of special wheat varieties. According to the characteristics of wheat grain use, it is divided into three categories.
Strong gluten wheat: hardness index greater than or equal to 60, crude protein (dry basis) / percentage greater than or equal to 14. The endosperm is hard and has a strong flour and is suitable for making bread.
Medium gluten wheat: hardness index greater than or equal to 50, crude protein (dry basis) / percentage greater than or equal to 12.5. The endosperm is semi-rigid or soft, and the flour has moderate strength. It is suitable for making noodles, dumplings, taro and other foods.
Weak gluten wheat: hardness index less than 50, crude protein (dry basis) / percentage less than 12.5. The endosperm is soft, and the flour is weak, which is suitable for making biscuits, cakes and other foods.
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